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Coastal states from 16th to 18th century


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Only a few coastal states could afford a ship of the line (SoL) fleet. They were more or less seven: Russia, Sweden, Denmark, United Provinces, Britain, France and Spain. In Europe and in the world, some other coastal states had a war fleet. Many had a merchant fleet and sometimes a privateering or pirate fleet.



Milestones: the major European powers


1516: Charles Quint (dynasty of Habsburg) comes to power until 1556. Because of the succession laws, he is King of Aragon and regent of Castile (Spain and its colonies), Duke of Burgundy (sovereign of Netherlands), Archduke of Austria, King of Sicilies (Sicily and Naples). He is also elected Emperor of the German Holy Roman Empire in 1519.





1521: Charles Quint gives the Archduchy of Austria to his brother, dividing the reigning dynasty into the Austrian Habsburg branch (which will also keep from 1556 the crown of the Holy Empire by elections) and the Spanish Habsburg branch (which will rule Spain from 1556). The two branches will stay allied.


1523: Gustav I Vasa breaks the Union of Kalmar (Denmark, Norway, Sweden) declaring Swedish independance from the Oldenburg Danish dynasty. Denmark will claim Norway in 1536.


1559: Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. This treaty ends the Italian Wars started in 1494 by the French dynasty of Valois.


1570: Stettin Treaty. The Nordic Seven Years War is won by an alliance of Denmark, Lübeck and Poland against Sweden. Between 1590 and 1634, a lot of wars happen in northern and eastern Europe involving Denmark, Sweden, Russia, Poland-Lithuania and the Ottoman Empire.


1571: the Holy League defeats the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto. From Lepanto to the Napoleonic wars, a lot of maritime battles will happen in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, involving mostly the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire, but also Spain, France, the Barbary Regencies (Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli), the Republic of Genoa, Tuscany, the Papal States, Malta, Britain and Russia.


1580: start of the Iberian Union: the Portugese and Spanish crowns will be united under the Spanish Habsburgs until 1640.



1581: Hague Act. Independance of the United Provinces (northern Netherlands). The southern Netherlands stay Spanish.


1588: the Invincible Armada is sent by Spain to Britain during the Anglo-Spanish war (1585-1604).


1640: Portugal gets back its independance under the Bragança dynasty.


1648: the Treaties of Westphalia end the Eighty-year War (Netherlands) and the Thirty-year War (most of Europe against the Habsburgs, and Catholics against Protestants). Sweden gains power in the Baltic Sea in detriment of Denmark. France gains some territories and Spain starts to decline.


1660: end of the First Nordic War started in 1655 by Sweden against Poland-Lithuania and then Denmark, Russia, the Habsburgs and the United Provinces. Sweden loses some territories.


1678: the Treaty of Nijmegen ends the Dutch War started in 1672 by France and its allies (Britain, Sweden) against the Quadruple Alliance (United Provinces, Holy Empire, Spain, Denmark). France gains some territories and Sweden gets back the ones it lost during the First Nordic War.


1697: the Ryswick Treaty ends the War of the league of Ausburg started in 1688, between Louis XIV of France (and the Ottoman Empire) against the Great Alliance (United Provinces, Britain, Holy Empire, Spain, Portugal, Duchy of Savoy and Sweden). France gains some territories of the Holy Empire, and western Santo Domingo in the Antilles.


1700: start of the War of Spanish Succession. As the last of the Spanish Habsburgs dies without any direct descendant, the Austrian Habsburgs and other European states propose an agreement to share the Spanish territories (Spains and colonies, Sicilies, Netherlands, Milan...). But the Bourbons (French) decide to use the official will and the Duke of Anjou, grandchildren of Louis XIV, becomes Philip V of Spain (starting the dynasty of Bourbon-Anjou). As Louis XIV also gives to Philip the inheritance rights to the French crown, the war starts.





1713: Treaty of Utrecht. France and Castile have been defeated by the Great Alliance of the German Holy Roman Empire, the Archduchy of Austria, Prussia, Britain, the United Provinces, Aragon, Portugal and the Duchy of Savoy. Spain loses a lot of territories: the Austrian Absburgs gain the southern Netherlands, Sardinia, Milan and Naples, the Savoys gain Sicily, Britain gains Gibraltar and Minorca. France gives to Britain a part of Acadia and Saint Christophe in the Antilles. France also recognizes the Hudson Bay and a part of Newfoundland as British territories. Philip V keeps the Spanish crown, but waives his rights on the French crown. Despite victorious, the United Provinces start to decline.


1720: the Hague Treaty ends a war started and lost by Spain in 1717 to recover Sardinia. Sicily is exchanged with Sardinia. The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia starts under the Savoys, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies is reunified under the Austrian Habsburgs.


1721: end of the Second Nordic War started in 1700. Also known as the Great Nordic War, it opposed Sweden to the coalition of Russia, Prussia, Denmark, Poland-Lithuania and Britain. Some Swedish territories are shared between the coalition: Prussia gains the south of Pomerania, Denmark gains the north of Holstein-Gottorp, and Russia gains access to the Baltic Sea with Estonia. Sweden starts to decline.


1738: the Treaty of Vienne ends the War of Polish Succession. Stanisław Leszczyński (France, Spain and Piedmont-Sardinia) accepts to waive to the Polish-Lithuanian crown in favor of Auguste III (Wettin) (Russia and the Archduchy of Austria). Spain takes back the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies from the Austrian Habsburgs, who give Parma and Piacenza in exchange. Spain also gives Tuscany to the Duke of Lorraine, who just married  Maria Theresa of Austria (Austrian Habsburgs), creating the reigning dynasty of Habsburg-Lorraine.


1748: the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle ends the War of Austrian Succession. The Austrian Habsburgs having no direct male descendant, Maria Theresa of Austria should succeed in Austria. But the Holy Empire can't have a woman as sovereign. The alliance of Prussia, France, Spain, Sweden, the Republic of Genoa and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies fights the alliance of the Archduchy of Austria, Britain, United Provinces, Russia and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Despite a Prussian betrayal, the belligerents manage to find an agreement: Prussia gains Silesia and Maria Theresa keeps the crown of Austria. But the other states aren't pleased with the outcome, and tensions remain.


1763: Treaty of Paris. The Seven Years War, started in 1756, can be considered as a world war. Austria wasn't pleased by giving Silesia to Prussia, and Britain would like more colonies in North America. The alliances change: on one side Britain, Prussia and Portugal. On the other side France, Austria, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Poland-Lithuania and the newly independant Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Prussia is almost beaten when Elizabeth I of Russia dies, and her successor signs a peace treaty. At sea and in the colonies, France and Spain are heavily beaten by Britain. Prussia keeps Silesia. France gives Acadia, Canada, the right bank of the Mississippi, some Antilles islands and India (except 5 trading posts) to Britain, aswell as the left bank of the Mississippi to Spain, which gives Florida to Britain. France loses its colonial empire, and Britain gains one.





1783: the Treaty of Paris ends the United States War of Independance. In 1775, the Patriots of the Thirteen Colonies rebel against Britain. In 1776, they declare Independance. France, Spain and the United Provinces join the war later. The United States obtain a territory limited by the Great Lakes to the north, the Mississippi to the west and the north of Florida to the south. France is given 5 more trading posts in India. Spain regains Florida.


1797: Treaty of Campo-Fermio. In 1792 started the War of the First Coalition, the French Republic fighting many European states (Britain, United Provinces, Austria, Prussia, Russia, Spain, Portugal, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal States). Despite a strong British maritime blocus, the coalition fails to invade France and some allies start to quit. After the Campaign of Italy led by the republican general Napoleon Bonaparte, Austria signs the peace treaty, leaving Britain as the only state at war. The French Republic gains the Austrian Netherlands, and creates sister republics: Batavian Republic instead of the United Provinces, Ligurian Republic instead of the Republic of Genoa, Cisalpine Republic instead of the Duchy of Milan... Venice is given to Austria in exchange of Milan and the Netherlands.


1801: end of the War of the Second Coalition started in 1799. After the fleet of the Napoleonian expedition to Egypt was sunk by Nelson at the battle of Aboukir, the second coalition is organized by Britain. The Ottoman Empire, Austria, Russia, Sweden, Portugal, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies are fighting the French Republic and its allies (seven sister republics, Denmark and Spain). But the coalition doesn't manage to invade France, and Russia quits. Napoleon Bonaparte, back from Egypt, undertakes a coup, becomes First Consul, invades Italy again and approaches Vienna. Treaties are signed separately during the year 1801. Britain gives back Minorca to Spain and the Rhine becomes the French eastern border.


1815: Congress of Vienna, end of the Napoleonic Wars. In 1804, Napoleon I Bonaparte is proclaimed Emperor. From 1805 to 1815 there will be five more coalitions. In 1805, Nelson defeats the French fleet at the battle of Trafalgar. The maritime fights will continue in the Caribbean, but Bonaparte concentrates on the continental warfare, reaching Moscow in 1812 but being forced to retreat due to the arson of the city. The last two coalitions defeat the First French Empire at Leipzig and Waterloo. Britain is the world's commercial and maritime hegemonic power. Spain will have lost almost all of its colonial empire a few years later.







From the Baltic to the Black Sea, and from Arabia to Japan, the coastal states are easily identifiable (even though some were small). In Africa, India, Indonesia and Americas, they were so many tribes or small kingdoms that I've found difficult and unnecessary to mention them all.


It's sometimes difficult to differentiate between the political entities and the territorial entities. So let's follow the coast:



Northern and western Europe




Russia: 1328 Great Principalty of Moscow (Rurik) 1547 Tsardom of Russia (Rurik 1598 Vasa 1613 Romanov) 1721 Russian Empire (Romanov) 1917


Norway: 1397 Kalmar Union (... 1450 Oldenburg) 1523 (Denmark) 1814 (Sweden) 1905


Sweden: 1397 Kalmar Union (... 1457 Oldenburg) 1523 Kingdom of Sweden (Vasa 1654 Wittelsbach 1720 Hesse 1751 Oldenburg 1818 Bernardotte)


Denmark: 1397 Kalmar Union (... 1448 Oldenburg) 1523 Kingdom of Denmark (Oldenburg)


Poland-Lithuania: 1386 Kingdom of Poland (Jagellon) and Great Duchy of Lithuania (Gediminas 1440 Jagellon) 1569 Republic of Two Nations (elected kings) 1795 1807 Duchy of Warsaw (Wettin) 1815


Prussia (Hohenzollern): 1525 Duchy of Prussia 1618 Brandenburg-Prussia 1701 Kingdom of Prussia 1918


German Holy Roman Empire:  962  German Holy Roman Empire (... 1438 Habsburg 1556 Austrian Habsburg 1740  Wittelsbach  1745  Habsburg-Lorraine1806 Confederation of the Rhine 1813


Lübeck: 1226 Imperial Free City of Lübeck (German Holy Roman Empire) 1806  Lübeck (France) 1813


Hamburg: 1189 Imperial Free City of Hamburg (German Holy Roman Empire) 1806  Hamburg (France) 1814


Bremen: 1646 Imperial Free City of Bremen (German Holy Roman Empire) 1806  Free Hanseatic City of Bremen 1811 Bremen (France) 1813


United Provinces:  1482  Seventeen Provinces (Habsburgs 1549 Spain)  1581  United Provinces (Orange-Nassau, stathouders)  1795  (France) 1815


Southern Netherlands:  1482  Seventeen Provinces (Habsburgs 1549 Spain)  1581  Southern Netherlands (Spain 1713  Austria)  1795  (France) 1815


Britain: 924 Kingdom of England (... 1485 Tudor 1603 Stuart)  1707  Kingdom of Great Britain (Stuart 1714 Hanover)  1801  United Kingdom of Great Britain (Hanover 1901 Windsor)


France: 987 Kingdom of France (... 1328 Valois 1589 Bourbon) 1792 French Republic 1804 First French Empire (Bonaparte) 1814


Spain: 1479 Crown of Castile and Crown of Aragon (Trastamare 1516 Habsburg 1556 Spanish Habsburg) 1556 Kingdom of Castile and Aragon (Spanish Habsburg 1700 Bourbon-Anjou) 1716 Kingdom of Spain (Bourbon-Anjou)


Portugal: 1139 Kingdom of Portugal (... 1385 Aziz) 1581 Iberian Union (Spain) 1640 Kingdom of Portugal (Bragança) 1910








States of Savoy (Savoy) : 1416 Duchy of  Savoy 1536 (France) 1563 Duchy of Savoy 1713 Kingdom of Sicily 1720 Kingdom of  Piedmont-Sardinia 1860


Genoa: 1528 Republic of Genoa 1797 (France) 1815


Corsica: 1511 (Genoa) 1553 (France) 1559 (Genoa) 1736 Kingdom of Corsica (Neuhoff) 1740 (Genoa) 1752 "Kingdom of Corsica" (democracy) 1768 (France) 1794 (Britain) 1796 (France)


Sardinia: 1516 (Spain) 1708 (Austria) 1717 (Spain) 1720 Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia (Savoy) 1860


Modena: 1452 Duchy of Modena (Este) 1796 (France) 1815


Lucca: 1119 Republic of Lucca 1805 (France) 1815


Tuscany: 1530 Duchy of Florence (Medicis) 1569 Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Medicis 1737 Habsburg-Lorraine) 1801 (France) 1815


Siena: 1167 Republic of Siena 1555 (Grand Duchy of Tuscany) 1801 (France) 1815


Rome: 752 Papal States 1798 (France) 1800 Papal States 1808 (France) 1815


Naples: 1442 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Aragon 1700 Spain) 1713 Kingdom of  Naples (Austria) 1720 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Austria 1735  Spain 1759 Bourbon-Sicilies) 1799 (France) 1815


Sicily: 1442 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Aragon 1700 Spain) 1713 Kingdom of  Sicily (Savoy) 1720 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Austria 1735 Spain 1759 Bourbon-Sicilies) 1860


Malta: 1530 Order of Saint John of Jerusalem 1798 (France) 1800 (Britain) 1964


Ferrara: 1471 Duchy of Ferrara (Este) 1598 (Papal States) 1798 (France) 1815


Venice: 1172 Republic of Venice 1797 (Austria) 1806 (France) 1815




Mediterranean and Black Sea




Austria: 1453 Archduchy of Austria (Holy Empire, Habsburg 1521 Austrian Habsburg 1780 Habsburg-Lorraine) 1804 Austrian Empire (Habsburg-Lorraine) 1866


Hungary: 1000 Kingdom of Hungary (... 1490 Jagellon 1526 Austrian Habsburgs) 1541 (Ottoman Empire) 1699 (Austria) 1866


Ragusa: 1358 Republic of Ragusa 1808 (France) 1815


Ottoman Empire: 1299 Ottoman Empire (Ottoman) 1923


Crimea: 1441 Khanate of Crimea (Giray 1478 Ottoman Empire, Giray Khans) 1783 (Russia) 1917


Egypt: 1205 Mameluk Sultanate (Bahri 1382 Burji) 1517 Ottoman Egypt (Ottoman Empire, Mameluk Pashas) 1805 Alaouite Egypt (Alaouite of Egypt) 1882


Tripoli: 1510 (Spain) 1530 (Malta) 1551 Regency of Tripoli (Ottoman Empire, ... 1711 Karamanid Beys) 1835 (Ottoman Empire) 1911


Tunis: 1207 Sultanate of Tunis (Hafsid) 1574 Regency of Tunis (Ottoman Empire 1756 Algiers, ... 1613 Mouradite Beys 1705 Husaynid Beys) 1811 Tunis Beylik (Husaynid) 1881


Algiers: 1515 Regency of Algiers (Ottoman Empire) 1830


Morocco: 788 Sultanate of Morocco (... 1472 Wattasid 1554 Saadi 1666 Alaouite of Morocco) 1957




Oceanic Africa and Arabia

NB: the coastal states shouldn't be confused with the coastal trading posts - the colonisation isn't mentioned - there are sometimes ethnics rather than dynasties when the power isn't hereditary




Senegal: 1350 Jolof Empire (Wolofs) 1549 Serer Kingdoms (Serers) 1960


Gambia: 1464 Songhai Empire (Sonni 1493 Askia) 1591


Ghana: 1620 Denkyira Kingdom (Akans) 1701 Ashanti Empire (Akans) 1797


Western Benin: 1600 Kingdom of Dahomey (Fons 1740 Oyo Empire 1823 Fons) 1894


Eastern Benin: 1500 Oyo Empire (Yorubas) 1897


Nigeria: 1440 Benin Empire (Edos) 1897


Northern Congo: 1550 Kingdom of Loango (Kongos) 1883


Southern Congo: 1390 Kingdom of Kongo (Kongos) 1885


Mozambique to Kenya: 10th Swahili city-states (Swahilis) 16th


Djibouti: 1435 Adal Sultanate (Walashma) 1577


Ethiopia: 990 Ethiopian Empire (... 1137 Zagwe 1270 Solomon) 1975


Sudan: 1504 Funj Sultanate of Sennar (Funjs) 1821


Oman: 751 Imamate of Oman (... 1406 Nabhani 1624 Ya'ariba) 1749 Sultanate of Oman (al-Said)


Saudi Arabia: 1744 Saudi Imamate (Saud) 1818








Persia: 1501 Kingdom of Persia (Safavid 1736 Afsharid 1750 Zand 1794 Qajar 1925 Pahlavi) 1979


Pakistan: 1747 Durrani Empire (Durrani) 1826


India: 1526 Mughal Empire (Great Mughals 1707 Mughals) 1858


Western India: 1490 Deccan Sultanates  1636 (Mughal Empire) 1674 Maratha Empire (Bhosale 1749 Bhat 1769) 1818


Southern India: 1336 Vijayanagara Empire (... 1505 Tuluva) 1565 Kingdom of Mysore (Wodeyar) 1799 (Britain) 1947


Eastern India: 1518 Deccan Sultanates 1687 (Mughal Empire) 1724 Hyderabad State (Nizams) 1947


Burma: 1510 Empire of Burma (Toungoo 1757 Konbaung) 1885


Thailand: 1351 Ayutthaya Kingdom (... 1409 Suphannaphum 1569 Sukhotha 1629 Prasat Thong 1688 Ban Phlu Luang) 1767 Kingdom of Thonburi (Thonburi) 1782 Kingdom of Siam (Chakri)


Cambodia: 1431 Kingdom of Cambodia (Khmers) 1867


Southern Vietnam: 7th Kingdom of Champa (Chams) 1832


Middle Vietnam: 1428 Dai Viet () 1527 northern Dai Viet (Mac 1545 Thrin Lords 1778 Nguyen1802 Empire of Vietnam (Nguygen) 1896


Northern Vietnam: 1428 Dai Viet () 1527 southern Dai Viet ( 1600 Nguyen Lords) 1802 Empire of Vietnam (Nguygen) 1896


Sumatra: 1520 Aceh Sultanate 1903


Java: 1526 Kingdom of Banten 1638 Banten Sultanate 1813


Borneo: 1363 Sultanate of Brunei 1846


Sulawesi: 1320 Kingdom of Gowa 1669


Philippines: 1457 Sultanate of Sulu 1917


China:  200 BC Chinese Empire (... 1368 Ming 1644 Qing) 1912


Korea: 919 Kingdom of Korea (... 1392 Joseon) 1897


Japan: 700 BC Empire of Japan (... Ashikaga Shoguns 1603 Tokugawa Shoguns 1868)






NB: too many tribes there :P although some were organized into confederations, and there were the pre-columbian empires

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Finished the post #1. Only 10 pictures per post :/


No kidding!  I think an NPC in game named Barberouge is in order!


Please No NPC ! :P


I'm not looking for titles either, but this post should make for a good basis for an interesting conquest system :)

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  • 4 weeks later...

I reject the last sentense in line 48. But otherwise it seems correct.


Interesting sidefacts to the various conflicts between Denmark and Sweden in the Baltic sea during these years:

Both England and Holland sided with either of those countries, in an effort (that eventually succeded) to keep them at status quo, enabling english and dutch traders to pass in and out paying little/none customs fee.

If Denmark kept the straights, they'd charge a fee, would Sweden gained control of the straights, they would most definetly charge a fee.


This gave that they could side with Denmark in one conflict, just to side with Sweden during the next. Only once did they end up siding on one side each.

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  • 2 weeks later...

Which sentense exactly ?


I didn't want to overcrowd the post, but yes many wars also happened because of trading reasons. Many treaties included specifications about tax-free zones or resources tax rates.

This one:

'Sweden starts to decline'


We all know that really didn't happen


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  • 3 weeks later...
  • 2 weeks later...

Great post!  Does this mean I can get in some deck splintering action against the filthy Swedes?  They sound like easy marks :P

I'm guessing a protracted naval battle against Ampen would be good fun.  You seem to have the required sense of humor, Ampen.  Sadly, I think my Yanks were still running around in loin cloths for much of the epoch.  I'm not sure Canoe Vs. Ship of the Line makes for a compelling naval engagement, but perhaps we shall see.

Wind, good to see you here.  I've enjoyed your comments at POTBS.  Looks promising doesn't it.

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