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Bonden

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  1. Hi Admin, A nice feature would be to simulate the curvature of the Earth and to extend the view horizon to 20-40 km (approximative distance at which a lookout at 30 m above the sea level could spot a strange sail (depending on its height) on the horizon in clear weather - see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horizon). At the horizon, the image also often shimmers from heat haze, making the identification even more difficult. I don't know whether this is too fps-hungry or too much coding, but if not, this would allow to simulate interestingly the delicate phase of strange sail identification, which influences a lot the captain's decisions of course (to flee or to chase). The Sailaway sim simulates this feature (https://sailaway.world/realisticsim). An example of the effect of the curvature of the Earth on the visibility of distant structures (source: Wikipédia v° courbure terrestre): Another (beautiful) example, of a sailing tall ship now: (source: Mila Zinkova, on Flickr) Another one (with the shimmer) (source: www.quora.com):
  2. Hi Admin Thanks for the news and welcome to… the Clerk (https://www.sea-legends.com/blog/theclerk) ! Great idea to generate content from digitalized content fom contemporary sources ! This seems truly innovative in AI development for 'historical' gaming ! Question : will the Clerk edit missions (orders) at random to the captain ?
  3. Thanks EdWatchmaker this project is indeed exciting ! best regards
  4. Hi everybody As SL will focus on the representation of the interior of a ship, where the captain will pace around and give orders, attention could be given to details for better immersive feeling, without, I guess (maybe I am wrong), too much coding effort and cost in fps, as such details are crammed into a very limited space. It is not that easy to represent with realism a functional warship of the Age of sail, a very complex system made of wood, rope, tar, canvas and metal. The most complex but quite well studied part of it is certainly the standing and running rigging, which is well described in model ship books (see former post). The interior equipment of the ship is also difficult to recreate, as we don’t have as much iconographic sources as for the external aspect of period ships. Some contemporary drawings and sketches, published in books on Nelson’s Navy, give very interesting views (infra). Detailed naval architecture monographs (Boudriot, Lavery, etc) also give detailed drawings of guns and sometimes cabin, decks and hold (supra). One comic strip by François Bourgeon – Les Passagers du vent, T. 1, La Fille sous la dunette, Casterman/Glénat – gives a fascinating reconstitution of the life aboard a French 74, based on the monograph of Boudriot (the whole series is a must for any fan of the period) (https://www.amazon.co.uk/Passagers-Vent-Fille-sous-Dunette/dp/2356480552/ref=sr_1_14?dchild=1&keywords=bourgeon+fran%C3%A7ois+passagers+du+vent&qid=1593561790&sr=8-14). Here are some striking examples of scenes: https://imgur.com/a/EDp8Qow However, museums showing original artefacts of the period (like Dockyard Museum with many items from the wreck of HMS Invincible, 1758) and, of course, the very few surviving ships of the period (mainly HMS Victory, HMS Trincomalee and USS Constitution), restored in their original appearance with all their equipment, are the best witnesses of this lost world. I bought some very useful books in this regards: - Detailed photographic accounts of the most spectacular witnesses of the period: o W Davies and M Mudie, HMS Trincomalee, 1817, Frigate, Seaforth Publishing, 2015 (https://www.amazon.co.uk/Frigate-HMS-Trincomalee-1817-Seaforth/dp/1848322216/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?dchild=1&keywords=davies+HMS+Trincomalee%2C+1817%2C+Frigate%2C+Seaforth+Publishing%2C+2015&qid=1593560948&sr=8-1-fkmr0) Some excerpts : https://imgur.com/a/ubuAvOt o J Eastland and I Ballantyne, HMS Victory, First Rate, 1765, Seaforth Publishing, 2011 (https://www.amazon.co.uk/HMS-Victory-First-Rate-Seaforth-Historic/dp/1848320949/ref=sr_1_fkmr0_1?dchild=1&keywords=HMS+Victory%2C+Seaforth+Publishing%2C+2015&qid=1593561010&sr=8-1-fkmr0) Some excerpts: https://imgur.com/a/LxJfLWG - A photographic display of many items from museums on Nelson’s Navy (from spyglass, square oak plate and rum barrel to octant, madeira bottle and carronades): JP Mc Guane, Heart of Oak, A Sailor’s Life in Nelson’s Navy, WW Norton & Company, 2002 (https://www.amazon.com/Heart-Oak-Sailors-Life-Nelsons/dp/0393047490) Some excerpts: https://imgur.com/a/jKXqSCx Another photographic account of items of the period is the nice book edited by M. Lincoln, Nelson & Napoleon, NMM, Greenwich, 2005, with many interesting objects (https://www.amazon.fr/Nelson-Napoleon-Margarette-Lincoln/dp/0948065591). Some excerpts: tps://imgur.com/a/vtF2aq9 Have a look too to three interesting (but overlaping in some ways) illustrated accounts on the Nelson's Navy, with engravings and sketches by seamen or officers of the everyday life and combats: - N Blake & R Lawrence, The illustrated companion to Nelson's Navy, Chatham Publishing, 1999 (https://www.amazon.fr/Illustrated-Companion-Nelsons-Navy-Napoleonic/dp/1861760906) very interesting to read, with many details (eg grog recipes !) in a condensed format and references to naval fiction, although the quality of illustration is sometimes very bad Some excerpts: https://imgur.com/a/bDNp60s - B. Lavery, Jack Aubrey commands. An historical companion to the naval world of Patrick O'Brian, Naval Institute Press,2003 (https://www.amazon.com/Jack-Aubrey-Commands-Historical-Companion/dp/1591144035) : a condensed and lavishly illustrated version of the famous Brian Lavery's Nelson's Navy Some excerpts: https://imgur.com/a/8Vs1UaV - R Morris, B Lavery, S Deuchar, Nelson, An Illustrated History, NMM, Greenwich, 1995 (https://www.amazon.com/Nelson-Illustrated-History-Roger-Morriss/dp/185669061X) focusing on Nelson's life but with interesting illustrations Some excerpts: https://imgur.com/a/SIRsZNo Last but not least, the movie ‘Master and Commander’ is also, of course, an amazing visual source of inspiration – maybe one of the best, as the ship and her crew are represented in everyday life and in combat action with an extraordinary attention to historical accuracy.
  5. To understand how does rigging works on a square-rigger, the best I found is imo the excellent Lennarth Petersson's book "Rigging period ship models". It gives very clear drawings of all parts of the standing and running rigging, without boring texts…
  6. Hi everybody I guess Admin is working on modelling our future ships 😉 Nice sources are certainly the monographs 1:48 for modellers (I guess that Admin already has a bunch of them for modelling the ships in NA). Famous ANCRE publisher has published many monographs - with beautiful plates at 1:48, many details on gunnery, decks, etc - interesting for SL, including : (NEW) Lugger Le Coureur (1776) : https://ancre.fr/en/monograph/50-monographie-du-coureur-lougre-1776.html And also an older nice one : - Cutter Le Cerf (1778) : https://ancre.fr/en/monograph/34-monographie-du-cerf-cotre-1778.html And I am the happy owner of the monograph on the beautiful brick Le Cygne (1806) : https://ancre.fr/en/monograph/35-monographie-du-cygne-brick-1806.html All are available in English Sail hooo
  7. Thanks. What I see is that the max total size left to attach a new file Under the last posts is …0.02 MB And I a bit of an ignorant as regards IT… I don't understand how to use Imgur.com for that purpose
  8. It is weird, some images are very light (80 ko) and cannot be uploaded
  9. PS: sorry I realize that many illustrations are too big files for be accepted (I will try to reduce the size)
  10. 10. Important Captain’ skills for a successful career: a. Leadership (as discipline was much more difficult to enforce than in Navy ships) b. Courage, daring, intelligence and creativity (eg to get close to merchant ships unnoticed, using false flag, etc.) c. Physical strength, stamina d. Seamanship, naval combat and tactical skills and experience e. (Coastal) navigation skills and experience in the area f. Organizational and management skills (missions, crew, prizes, ship, money, etc.) https://imgur.com/sm3C4Cv French privateer Robert Surcouf https://imgur.com/tzZCpg3https://imgur.com/tzZCpg3 Commodore George Walker (before 1700 - 1777), ca. 1750 (source: Wikipedia)
  11. 10. Prize money management by the captain (or a bank/agent for him): a. Investing in the ship (upgrading, beautify it or buying a new one) and her crew (experienced pilot or gunner,…) b. Funding his own cruise and hiring privateers (= becoming an investor) c. Investing in industry, stock exchange and other more or less profitable projects d. Expending money on real estate (big mansion, etc.) or on more futile (but good for morale) shore’s pleasures... https://imgur.com/bed2Usj Saint Peter Port, Guernsey Hauteville House at 38 Rue Hauteville, built in 1800 by an English privateer and Victor Hugo’s home during his exile from France
  12. 9. Fortune of war : risks and opportunities a. Risks : i. Unsuccessful cruise (no merchant ships present in the area at the moment of cruise – ‘no sport’; linked to seasonal factors like trade winds etc.) ii. Wrong identification or qualification of a prize as an enemy ship or equivalent (in case of neutral nation: neutral vessels could be captured only if they ran blockades or violated neutrality rules – eg transporting enemy goods; the legal status of captured neutral vessels was complex and subject to intense discussions in court) ; iii. Loss of the ship/cargo or damage from 1. Combat (enemy frigate or brig, gunboats near enemy port, heavily armed merchant,…) 2. Bad weather / grounding / shipwreck 3. Mutiny https://imgur.com/E82HFzv https://imgur.com/mlsUmy6 Nicholas Pocock Captain Jeremiah Coghlan's ship the 'Renard' engaging the French privateer the 'General Ernouf' off Haiti, 1805; The destruction of the 'General Ernouf' by the 'Renard' (oil on canvas 19½ x 29½ in. (49.5 x 75 cm), a pair)(source: Rountree Ryon Galeries) iv. Loss of the crew from 1. Operation, combat or capture by an enemy ship; the crew of privateer ships could claim to be treated as prisoners of war and not as pirates 2. Press from Royal Navy (at sea or in port) (unless crew members are legally protected against press) 3. Recapture of the prize (prize crew loss) 4. Mutiny v. Captain’s death, illness and injuries or capture during operation and combat vi. Loss of the prize or its cargo during chase or combat (shot through the hull, fire,…) or during its return to port (recapture, shipwreck,…) vii. Contestation of legality of the capture (esp. for neutral ships) or of the validity of the letter of marque in court, which, at best, could lengthen the proceedings and the payment or, at worst, could lead to the dismissal of the claim (with important financial consequences, or even death if the letter of marque was considered as invalid by the court, see infra) viii. Dissolution of the agreement with the sponsor/ship owner (because lack of success, ship loss or financial problems in court), end of validity of the letter of marque (including if a peace treaty was signed) and no cruise perspectives b. Opportunities: i. Possibility of amassing a fortune in few cruises ii. Possibility of getting fame and reputation as privateer’s captain (see famous privateers like Surcouf etc.) iii. Significant contribution to the effort of war iv. Adventurous life
  13. 8. Prize management under prize law (for detail see Wikipedia, v° Prize Law) a. To be sold, the captured vessel and its cargo had to be brought before an Admiralty court in a proceeding, sometimes very long, aiming at the ‘condemnation’[1] of the ship and its cargo (which occurred only if the letter of marque was valid, if the cruise was compliant with this document and if the captured vessel was an enemy vessel, as indicated in the letter of marque). If the vessel and its cargo were condemned, it was put for sale at auction (imo, it would be nice to simulate the possible delay in prize condemnation (especially if the prize was neutral), as it has consequences on cash flow for the captain and payment to seamen) https://imgur.com/QZUa3XH Advertising for the auction of the prize Chelmers of London, brig captured by the French privateer Junon in 1810 (Source: Wikipedia) https://imgur.com/xJAahmb (source: http://www.articles1781.com/Prize Courts.html) i. The price obtained was shared according to articles of association, save the share for the government (1/10 for the authority issuing the letter of marque in France at least; in Britain, I did not find the info) ii. in Kydd’s Treachery (p. 211), the articles provided: 1. 5/8 for the investors 2. 3/8 for the crew a. 60 shares for the captain b. 30 shares for the officer(s) c. 15 shares for the boatswain, the gunner and other valuable members d. 12 to 2 shares for the seamen. b. if the court refused to condemn the vessel, it could be reclaimed by its original owner together with financial compensation, making the cruise less profitable or even a financial disaster; c. if the letter of marque was considered invalid, the captain could be considered as a pirate and hanged as such (it was the case of Captain William Kidd in 1701); d. If prize could not be brought to court for practical / technical reason (shortage of crew, bad weather, etc.), it was an accepted and lawful practice to ransom the captured ship (rather than destroying it) and ask the ship’s master to sign a document acknowledging debt (IOU, scrip). [1] The proceeding was directed against the vessel itself and its cargo (‘in rem’ proceeding), which were condemned as an enemy vessel/cargo.
  14. 7. Missions a. Individual and independant cruise chasing enemy merchant ships in a designated area for a limited period of time (this was negociated by the captain and/or the ship owner); included: i. Contact and identification of the enemy ships (tricky task, as many ships were sailing under false colors or without any flag; sometimes, bad surprises, as some warships also used deception as war trick !) ii. Chase and interception (whatever the flag hoisted or even if there was no flag); must hoist the true flag before any shot was fired[1] iii. Boarding followed either by the control of the legal protections (if neutral) or a combat/capture of the ship (if identified enemy or neutral running blockade) iv. Prize crew allocation to bring back the prize in port v. Prisoners management (under the law of war) vi. Prize’s return to port (by a prize-captain and a limited crew) vii. Possible combat with (or, in most case, fleeing from) enemy warships or privateers viii. End of the cruise (return to port with prizes; prisoners handling; proceedings before the admiralty court) b. Occasional capture of merchant ship (by armed merchantman) c. Cruise in teams of 2-3 privateers https://imgur.com/bfew4Oc Boarding of the Triton by Surcouf https://imgur.com/mRlD5Z2 "Le retour des corsaires - 1806", par Maurice Orange, fin XIXe siècle. Musée du Vieux Granville, Granville, Normandie. © Wikimedia Commons, domaine public. [1] According to Wikipedia, “Firing under a false flag could cost dearly in prize court proceedings, even result in restitution to the captured vessel's owner”.
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