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  1. In this tutorial I explain how I chose my officers. This is especially important when you have a new ship enter your fleet of if you suffer a loss of 4 or more officers in a battle.
  2. This is a basic sailing tutorial for those who aren't used to playing sailing games. It takes a bit of practice, but once you understand the basics, it is really fun.
  3. Hi folks! In this tutorial I will be looking at the relationship between the Admiralty and your Career. The focus will be on officer selection, training and career points. I will also be looking at how you optimize buying and selling items such as ships and weapons.
  4. Tired of getting your troops wiped out in land battles? In this tutorial I will show you how to create better units for your transports to bring to battle!
  5. In this quick tutorial I explain how you choose officers to maximize the abilities of your ship and crew. Hope ya'll find it helpful!
  6. Hey folks! After the release of AOS on steam, I watched a bunch of reviews and videos and decided to buy the game (and DLC). One of things I thought received fairly superficial coverage was the mechanics of the Land Battle tutorial; especially for recruits. So this advanced land tutorial is aimed at these folks. It is fairly long, but I believe fairly in depth. Hope you all like it. For veterans of the Ultimate General Series only a couple of features have really changed, but you still might have some interest in having a look. If I messed anything up, please don't hesitate to let me know. I've only done the tutorials and have yet to actually dive into the campaigns (though I have fought a battle or two).
  7. A Treatise On Custom Banners By Ove Gjedde Charles Edward Stuart ( [KOS] Kingdom of Scotland | https://bank.carrd.co/ ) There's a fair chance that you will by now have seen images where a player has a flag on their ship that is not the flag of their nation. This is because of a client-side modification to the game that in no way affects gameplay. Other players cannot see your flag unless they are using the same modification as you. One of the perks to Naval Action being entirely hosted and calculated on a server (down to the water and waves) is that it largely, if not completely, eliminates client cheating. Because of that, rules regarding what's done client-side are more lax, as it cannot affect other players. Here's how to change your flag. Things you will need: Naval Action. An image editing program. (This guide uses paint.net, which you can find here. ) A Unity explorer. (This guide uses UnityEX, which is harder to find. Any Unity explorer will work.) Time and patience. Step One: Open your archive explorer and navigate to your Steam directory, and from there to \steamapps\common\Naval Action\Client_Data\. Make a copy of "sharedassets0.assets" and throw it somewhere you can find it if you want to undo your customizations. Open "sharedassets0.assets". Step Two: Find your nation in the list, and Export it as a .dds file. UnityEX does this automatically with the "Export with convert" option. This author suggests sorting the archive by Name to save time. (Nation flag filenames will be provided at the end of this guide.) Having exported the national flag, we now need to navigate to the raw .dds texture and make the edits we desire. I don't like the Danish flag very much in its original state, so we're going to improve upon it. Discontinuity warning. I'm not going to go into how to use an image editor, as I suspect people who have gotten this far know how to use one. But a few decent tips I have are: Do not stray from the resolution used by the game, or your flag will get cut off; and everything past pixel 422 on the x axis will be disregarded. Try not to forget to add a texture to your flag. Simply searching "Transparent flag texture" on Google will typically get you a good selection to pick from. Once you're done creating or choosing your custom flag, proceed to Step Three below. Step Three: Having now made the edits I desire, we need to get the file back into the Unity archive as a .tex file again. Assuming we left the flag with the same name in the folder it was exported to, we can just hit "Import all files" in UnityEX and launch the game. Done. Please note, again, only you (and players with the same modification) can see your custom national flag. It will appear on all ships that are of your nation, or join a battle on your nation's team. Index of file names: France - flag_0006_Fr.tex Espana - flag_0005_Sp_00001.tex OR flag_0005_Sp.tex Pirates - flag_0011_Pirate.tex Great Britain - flag_0003_UK_white.tex VP - flag_0010_Dutch.tex Denmark - flag_0009_Denmrk.tex Sverige - flag_0007_Sweden.tex USA - flag_0001_US_v2.tex Russia - russian_empire.tex Prussia - prussia.tex Poland - polish.tex Neutral - flag_9999_NoTeam.tex If you have questions about this guide, or anything else, please contact me either through the forums, in-game, or on Discord at: Charles Edward Stuart#5482 And please like if this helped you. Shameless self promotion is my thing.
  8. With the wiki and many of our guides becoming outdated, I've put up a new one (Posted over on Steam) which will hopefully answer many of the questions facing new players. I will be adding more content but for now it includes sections on: Nation Selection First Steps Basic Guidance on Port/Sea screens and the Map Combat and Sailing Levelling Making Money Evaluating Ships and sample recommended builds for current meta Equipping ships Solo vs Clan play DLC content guide [Note - Steam has been experiencing issues the past week on its servers that have not been resolved, and new content is taking a long time to load up. If you have problems, they should be resolved shortly, just let it take a minute to load in the meantime]. Edit: The lag/loading issue on community hub content on steam right now is caused by a new text filtering tool they began to implement two days ago. You may be able to fix this problem by disabling the text filter options. To do this click "View" in the top left corner of your steam client, click Settings, click "Account Details," go to "preferences," scroll to text filtering, click "join experiment," disable all the options. If the issue isn't resolved this week I'll put together an alternative form of distributing it. Picture below. Cheers.
  9. Salve a tutti, vi lascio il link del tutorial su come mettere la lingua italiana su Naval Action. La traduzione è stata fatta dalla community italiana di Naval Action. Spero vi sia utile!
  10. Salve a tutti, ho iniziato una serie di video tutorial in italiano per tutte le persone che hanno difficoltà a comprendere le dinamiche del gioco. Vi lascio il link del primo video. E qui il secondo video che tratta della modalità open world e le basi del commercio. E qui il terzo video in cui vengono spiegati tutti i comandi durante le battaglie navali. E qui il quarto video dove vengono spiegati le varie fasi dell'abbordaggio E il quinto video con alcuni consigli sul commercio. E il settimo episodio con alcuni consigli su come superare l'esame finale.
  11. Hi I passed the final exam on my 1st try a couple of months back, but when i decided to get it on my alt after the treacherous waters patch I found it a lot harder. It took me probably more than a dozen tries to get it, finally, yesterday. So I am sharing some observations. In the end the process i followed was effective. It just took a while to work out. Process. 1. First I tried the same pattern I used on my main, board the first, sink the second. 2. Next i tried de-masting 3. Just battle it out, focus on one ignore the other 4. Chain one down, run off, separate them, sink individually 5. Chain one down, run off, separate them, board individually - This worked. It took 49 minutes, 50 seconds (First step - separate them) -I focused chain on the guy that turned right, got him down to 65% -Then i ran like a scared little baby rabbit. I found that the Surprise will outsail the cerberus when you are slightly more than 90 degrees into the wind, i.e. not directly across the wind, but slightly upwind. The Cerb cannot point as high, so you don't have to worry about him catching up. - I healed up and basically kept him running after me until his buddy was distant (2nd step - sink the fast pursuer) - Then I turned, lowered sails to battle-sails, hit 9 for boarding - when he came for me i kept adjusting so I hit him head on, and turned him into the wind, timing the dropping of all sails. - G for boarding and off we go - The key to winning the boarding game (for me anyway) is By now the other guy will have caught up. (3rd step - sink the slow pursuer) --You don't have to worry about this guy catching you, he is too low on sails. --You run off long enough to heal your crew back up to 240 --heal the ship too if you want --when crew is back to 240, turn back and do it again. The boarding game is long this way, but it is pretty certain. Just don't actually attack the guys until they are low on morale. I was starting to think I was never going to get it, but this worked. Good luck to you all. salut J'ai passé l'examen final lors de mon premier essai il y a quelques mois, mais lorsque j'ai décidé de le faire sur mon 'alt' après le patch d'eaux perfides, je l'ai trouvé beaucoup plus difficile. Il m'a fallu probablement plus d'une douzaine d'essais pour l'obtenir, enfin, hier. Je partage donc quelques observations. En fin de compte, le processus que j'ai suivi a été efficace. Il a juste fallu un peu de temps pour travailler. Processus. 1. J'ai d'abord essayé le même motif que sur mon charactere principal, embarquez le premier, couler le second. - J'ai trouvé impossible de gagner l'embarquement, l'ennemi semble avoir amélioré sa défense, beaucoup de Marines, mes attaques même lorsqu'elles étaient calées étaient pathétiques. Si je faisais une seule erreur, par exemple en attaquant alors qu'il était en défense, je pourrais perdre tout mon avantage numérique en un tour. L'autre navire me tirait constamment dessus et je perdais des hommes aux deux. - J'ai essayé cela plusieurs fois, puis j'ai abandonné l'approche. 2. Ensuite, j'ai essayé de démâter - n'entrez pas dans un duel de mât avec ces f ** kers. Ce sont des professionnels. C'était une bataille à sens unique. - J'ai essayé cela plusieurs fois, puis j'ai abandonné l'approche. 3. Il suffit de se battre, se concentrer sur l'un ignorer l'autre - L'idée était de s'enfoncer puis de fuir et de guérir - ca presque travaillé plusieurs fois, mais je prenais trop de dégâts lors du premier combat 4. Enchaîner un, descendre, séparer, couler individuellement - Cela a presque fonctionné. - a couru le chronomètre jusqu'au bout en une tentative, 3 minutes de plus et je l'aurais cloué - Mais finalement j'ai décidé de changer une fois de plus mon approche 5. Enchaîner un, descendre, séparer, embarquer individuellement - Cela a fonctionné. Cela a pris 49 minutes, 50 secondes (Première étape - séparez-les) -Je me suis concentré sur le type qui a tourné à droite et l'a réduit à 65% -Alors j'ai couru comme un petit lapin effrayé. J’ai trouvé que la surprise surclasserait le cerberus lorsque vous êtes légèrement au-dessus de 90 degrés dans le vent, c’est-à-dire pas directement dans le vent, mais légèrement au vent. Le Cerb ne peut pas viser aussi haut, vous n'avez donc pas à vous soucier de le rattraper. - J'ai guéri et je l'ai toujours poursuivi jusqu'à ce que son copain soit éloigné (2ème étape - couler le poursuivant rapide) - Puis je me suis retourné, j'ai baissé les voiles pour aller au combat, j'ai frappé 9 pour monter à bord - Quand il est venu pour moi, j'ai continué à m'adapter, alors je l'ai frappé de plein fouet et je l'ai tourné dans le vent, programmant le largage de toutes les voiles. - G pour monter à bord et c'est parti - La clé pour gagner le jeu d'embarquement (pour moi en tout cas) est --- NE JAMAIS ATTAQUER ----- Menacez une attaque, mais passez toujours au "dernier coup de canon" ou au "mousquet de tir". L'ennemi a un énorme avantage en mêlée. impossible à battre. ---- Regardez la rotation, attachez-vous toujours quand ils tirent ---- dès qu'ils sont sur le temps de recharge, attaquez et changez de mouvement ---- Pendant que vous faites cela, continuez à pomper la clé du support du côté où vous les faites face afin de pouvoir pomper les larges-côtés. Vous pouvez les couler de cette façon, ou si vous ne le faites pas, cela tue l’équipage. ---- Quand leur moral est à zéro, alors, ATTACK --- Gagner, attraper leurs réparations, les couler puis courir à nouveau. À ce stade, l'autre gars aura rattrapé son retard. (3ème étape - couler le poursuivant lent) - Tu n'as pas à t'inquiéter de ce type qui t'attrape, il est trop bas sur les voiles. - Allez partir assez longtemps pour soigner votre équipe jusqu'à 240 - guérissez le navire aussi si vous voulez --Quand l’équipage est revenu à 240, faites demi-tour et recommencez. Le jeu d’embarquement est long comme ça, mais c’est à peu près certain. Il suffit de ne pas attaquer les gars jusqu'à ce qu'ils soient bas sur le moral. Je commençais à penser que je ne l'obtiendrais jamais, mais cela a fonctionné. Bonne chance à tous.
  12. Why a community/group build? Well, I wanted to do a hull modelling tutorial for a long time but I just don´t like the concept of a 'one-way' tutorial, I want to learn something, too, after all. The basic idea is that I show my approach to certain aspects of ship modelling (making the frames, applying thickness to the hull shape, modelling head rails etc) and then the participants can decide whether they want to follow my approach or try something different and then post it in the dedicated thread. To make this work properly, it´s important that we all work on the same ship and thus face all the same challenges and can transfer the input/help from other members directly on our own model. What´s the scope of the tutorial? Just the basic hard-surface stuff initially. Getting the plans into the modelling app, modelling the hull, head, transom, decks. Standing rigging and applying textures optional. What do I need to participate? Well, I'm using Blender and Gimp but any other modelling app like Maya or SketchUp and a picture-editing software will do. If you´re also using Blender, I suggest you install Offset Edges and LoopTools, which are really helpful imo. There countless other nice add-ons for Blender (like TinyCAD) but I won´t use them for this tutorial as I try to keep it as basic as possible. I'll provide the original plan, my edited version and a .blend file with my usual setup, including the plans imported into blender. Please use those only the for the tutorial Here´s the plan / ship I've chosen for the tutorial:
  13. Jeder "Content Creater" kann hier gerne seine deutschsprachingen Tutorial-Videos posten. Ich mach mal den Anfang mit Entmasten (nicht kommentiert), Ausdauer (kommentiert) und Entern (kommentiert). In der Videobeschreibung sind die Zeiten verlinkt - für den schnellen Zugriff.
  14. Given that the premise of the tutorials is bound to change at least slightly a couple more times before release, I was hesitant to present these, yet would like to gauge response as to their presentation before having to remake them in final form upon release. This is my humble attempt (yet again) at offering guidance (this time with notes @staun) on how to pass each exam in the tutorial. Exam #1: Destruction Exam #2: Demasting Exam Exam #3: Boarding Exam Exam #4: Endurance Exam Exam #5: Final Exam Thank you for watching.
  15. I seriously think it will be great to have a starter nation with a story mode, which may be in the PVE server or PVE only instance. Starter nation can also be any non-hardcore nation like Spanish / British etc. in a PVE only environment. Story mode will transition into PVP server / instance when the time comes. Heavy use of battle instance graphics as intros into game, into battles etc. Nice additions of cartoonish story modes, selections into game. Creating a structured introduction to make the experience more immersive. * Starter nation is also a tutorial, which has a nice small story. In this story there are quests to teach various aspects of the game. * Players come from Europe to this new land, they already have some experience in sailing. * A nice cinematic intro, where the adventure starts, arrival to new lands. Shot with beautiful battle instance graphics, a merchant ship arriving the port, sunset, nice sea, nice ship visuals, some nice text on screen. * Some basic background, some story and starting the job as basic cutter captain. * Few easy delivery missions, trade missions, few easy combat trials. Just to get familiar with UI, map etc. Current in game tutorials to be placed inside the initial story mode. * Promotion to 6th rates and a bit more challenging missions. Escorting merchant ships, getting attacked by pirates . During this missions there is no battle timer ticking, and ships waiting. Instead there are always cinematics first and battle starts afterwards. This game just has the beauty so cinematic part is just ui turned off (ctrl+h) and free roaming camera. But will be very immersive for new players. After some 6th rate action, transfer to a new base and PVP instance/server. * There may be simulated RVR mission, just to introduce RVR to the new players. Just npc fighting scripted, but commands coming from the admiral to the player, go capture C circle, sink the mortar brig etc. * Simulated ganking, just to show how to call ai Reinforcements, use chat windows and call help from nation. This is really important * Story advances and all the tutorial missions are blended into story mode. Story finishes with 6th rates, captain stays with current initial nation/faction. * As the player is already playing on PVP server, after final exam successful, Captain has a final option to choose to serve another nation or stay with the current one. This can be postponed for some small time, but decision has to be made. * The whole story mode can be skipable but strongly not advised for new players. ---------------------------------------------------------- This is one of the missing parts of the NA. I hope they implement something like this. The ideas are just sketches of how it can be, to be further developed. After this kind of story mode, many new players get much more immersed into the game. The OW part of the game will be more desired after finishing the story mode. Note: This is not entirely my idea. There have been many similiar ideas on the forum. The fact is, this is not an idea this is a reality of gaming. In many games this has been done for many years. I am just reminding "a missing core component" of a good game. In a technical game, in a difficult game to learn game (this is not a FPS that you can start playing instantly), this kind of introduction/story mode is surely needed.
  16. I completed the tutorial final exam today but upon completion of the exam I did not receive credit for the completion or receive any of the rewards. I have included screenshots for reference. The exam was completed in an outpost of mine. I'd appreciate receiving the rewards for this, and maybe a bit of compensation for my troubles (I completed it twice took screenshots the second time) :)
  17. So I am trying to finish the Final Exam. Alot of online posts says the best way to do the final exam is to make a straight line to one of the ships and start a boarding action. Well thats not that hard the problem is that even following 2 different videos the other ship just comes around behind me and starts poping shells into my rear end droping my crew faster than I can take out the enemy crew. Is there some way new or did they change it or am I just really unlucky.
  18. When I started the game (I started yesterday) and went out to sea, my ship appeared on a column on water that was raised quite high above the water level of the water around it. Also, in the distance, you can see that the water level is raised (probably to the same height as the column under my ship) at what looks like a circle around my ship. When I move my ship, the raised water moves with it. What it actually looks like though is that there is a "doughnut" area where the water level is lowered with my ship in the middle where the doughnut hole would be. Also, the tutorial dialogue box that pops up is empty with the choice buttons also blank. That might be a seperate issue though. As you can see in the second screenshot, I managed to complete the first item on the gunnery tutorial, but I have no idea what that is!
  19. I have a suggestion to enhance Tutorials and help players skilling up. Implement a seperate battle scenario accessible from Port UI, like the tutorials. Call it like "Training Room". Players who get in there can chosse what ship they want to sail themselves (type, wood mix, long, medium or carro equipped, maybe even upgrade and knowledge selectable, for testing) and what enemy ships they want to encounter (ship type only, random layout). All in sandbox mode without effects on the rest of the game... So if a Player wants to check out if he can defeat a santi with a Fir/Fir Ingermanland, let him do. After that, he may want to check out if a Fir/Sabicu Ingermanland does a better job. If one player wants to show his mate some tactics: let them go into training room and sail there together. Let them do. It has no consequences... Gold, XP, Marks, ships... nothing gained or lost. Just training. I think this would be very helpful for newer or casual players to get into the game.
  20. A small tutorial on Free Camera mode of Naval Action. For more tutorials you can visit clan BCC forum: http://bccnavalaction.freeforums.net/board/20/naval-action-guides INFO: [Home] to detach. Z & X up/down W – Forward S – Back A – Move/Strafe Left D – Move/Strafe Right [ and ] – Zooming Mouse Wheel – increase/decrease speed of camera If you see a ship in the distance press [CTRL] key and hold it down. This frees your Mouse. Hover mouse over the ship and double click. This brings up the details... thank you all for feedbacks
  21. I have put together various naval action guides and tutorials and links to many stuff. These are mostly for new players. http://bccnavalaction.freeforums.net/board/20/naval-action-guides
  22. Help ! Help for me Devs !!! (First, I English bad. Sorry. I'm from Republic of Korea. I just 18c ship lover) I all complete Tutorial and Challange. But I no receive reward ! T.T http://steamcommunity.com/games/311310/announcements/detail/1666765335143310246 see. Devs. But I no receive reward !!!!!!!!!! T.T Help!!!!!! I need XP(Master and Commander Rank) and Ship !!!! See screen shot. I all complete Tutorial and Challange. But I no receive reward ! T.T Plz, Help me. My In-game ID : Edward Edwards Sever : Carribean (PVP sever) My Steam Profile : http://steamcommunity.com/id/hyeok416 Help !!!!!
  23. After completing the Tutorial, specifically the Endurance Challenge, I returned to port to find my Wasa missing. I am very upset over the Wasa as it had many expensive upgrades and Edinorog Guns (which i cannot replace easily). I would like my ship back and all the upgrades and cannons I had on it. I cant remember what exactly was in the hold so i do not care about that, just the ship, the guns and the upgrades. If this could be resolved today (possibly in the next two hours) that would be a big help as I was hoping to use it today but as of now i cannot.
  24. Hi everyone i just wanted to show some of you how you post you NA chatlog : Got to: Computer -> C/storage -> Programs -> Steam -> Steamapps -> Common -> Naval action -> Client Data -> Chatlog notice : some people have their steam libary on their D/storage if so, open that one other than your C/storage and look for steam there. I hope it helped some people and you can understand my ''special'' english. have fun with that -joegrag
  25. Since we have an incredible amount of plans in this subforum, but no tutorial on how to read them (at least I haven´t found one), I figured I have to make one myself. And it´s a nice starting point for my modelling tutorial For this tutorial, I chose the plan of the Gefion, a danish 24-pounder frigate launched in 1843. Why choose a plan for a ship that´s out of the NA timeframe? Because it´s easy to read, contains a lot of information and I can explain a lot of things which woudn´t be possible with a contemporary british of french plan (some of the lines you won´t see on those, but on 'modern' reconstructions) Let´s get started, here´s the original draught of the Gefion: First, we´ll have a look at the dimensions given in the lower right corner and how they´re measured. The information here seems to be pretty straightforward, length between perpendiculars ( p/p) 160', breadth moulded 41', depth in hold 21' 1', draught aft 18' 9'' draught amidships 18' 2'', draught forward 17' 7'' with a difference between the draught fore and aft of 1' 2''. The middle gunport is 6' 9'' above the waterline, the distance between the gunports is 7' 2''. The rest are the results of the displacement calculations and not really important. What´s below the title is a bit more interesting as it tells us that the frigate should be armed with 28 long 24-pounders à 15 skp (~ 47,2 cwt with a length of 9' 6'') and 20 short-pattern 24-pounders à 8 1/2 skp (27,75 cwt). The total broadside weight - one side - is 576 danish pounds, converted to british pounds that´s 634,5. We have to keep in mind that the danish fod, as the french pied de roi, is a bit longer than the imperial feet, so if we want to compare these dimensions to a similiar british frigate like the Endymion or want to import and scale the plan in a modelling app, which probably only knows meter or feet, we have to convert them. The conversion factor is ~ 1.0305 (1.06575 for the pied de roi, by the way), so the dimensions in imperial feet are: length p/p 164' 10 1/2'' breadth 42' 3'' depth in hold 21' 9 3/4'' draught aft 19' 4'' draught foreward 18' 1 1/2'' middle gunport above the WL 6' 11 1/3'' distance between gunports 7' 4 5/8' Okay, let´s see how these dimensions are defined on the plan: First, the perpendiculars on the outboard profile (green lines) .As the name implies, these are either perpendicular to the keel or the load waterline (WL, red line). On british plans, they´re always perpendicular to the keel. On most french ones, also perpendicular to the keel. Swedish and danish, it depends on the timeframe, but most probably perpendicular to the WL. But they´re always parallels to the station lines (the thin red lines with numbers and/or letters). There were several ways to define the position of the perpendiculars, here it´s the intersection of the rabbet line (bright blue, shows where the inner edge of the planking is attached to the keel, stem and stern post) and the WL. I added the purple lines to show where the perps would have been on a british plan (at the stem and stern post, that´s the 'length of the gundeck'), these would give a length of 168' 7 1/3''. Next stop, the breadth. Here we have the breadth moulded, that means the breadth inside of planking, as opposed to breadth extreme, i.e. outside of planking. Here´s the body plan: It shows the station lines (the thin red lines on the outboard profile, remember? ^^) and the breadth moulded is the distance between the two yellow lines along the red WL. The station lines aren´t necessarily in the same positions as the actual frames, but they nethertheless define the shape of the hull. What they don´t show, however, is what the hull looks like with planking. This a very important thing to know if you want to make a 3D ship model and sadly a beginner´s mistake that happens quite often. If you don´t have a cross section that shows the thickness of the planking, you can measure the distance of the rabbet line (bright blue) to the keel, these are the two short orange lines, roughly 4''. This gives you the thickness of the planking from the keel up to the wales. The wales are just 3 or 4 rows of thicker planks which run along the whole length of the ship; as a rule of thump, they have 1,33 times the thickness of the planking of the underwater hull. The outboard profile shows the upper and lower edge of the wales (white line, 1. and 2.), the body plan only the upper edge (1.). Depth in hold. The danes used the french method of measuring the depth in hold, so this is the distance (dark blue line) from the upper edge of the keel to the lower surface of the upper gun deck beams at the midship bent (where the breadth moulded is taken). The british would measure the distance from upper edge of the keel to the lower surface of the gun deck. Draught fore and aft Easy. This is the distance from the WL to the keel along the perpendiculars fore and aft. Now let´s let get to the interesting bits: Here you can see which lines correspond with each other on the profile, half-breadth and body plan. Gefion´s tumblehome is pretty modest (2' 6''), especially compared to earlier ships like La Belle Poule and La Renommée. A large tumblehome can have positive effect on stabilty, but it also reduced the space available to operate the guns and may have made the ship a jerky roller. X, X1 and X2, called buttock lines on modern plans, are lines to check the plan (and a 3D model) for errors. Here´s what these lines look like in 3D: And in combination with the (unfinished) basic hull model: The station lines and the buttock lines (red) should describe the same exact surface. The clipping effect is pretty nocticeable as both are low-res, but it´s a nice start. The line called L'Estain (I only know the french term and you will find it only on french and danish plans) is especially interesting as it´s a simple diagonal on the half-breadth, but quite a complex curve on the outboard profile. It more or less defines the shape of the forward fashion piece, which can be seen here: The line called 1 B on the original plan is the part of the wing transom where the planking ends. So, now that we know what line means what, it´s time to check the plan for inaccuracies and distortions. The first step is to measure the scale given on the top of the draught. There are four equal parts à 10 fod with 384 pixels per part. The largest horizontal dimension given is that of the length p/p, so we measure the distance between the perpendiculars along the WL. That´s 6152 pixels, multiplied with the result of 10 fod/384 pixels gives us 160' 2''. Two inches off the mark, but very good for a plan that has been drawn 168 years ago. The largest vertical dimension is the depth in hold. That´s 810 pixels, multiplied with the result of 10 fod/384 pixels gives us 21' 1 1/8'' instead of 21' 1''. 1/8 of an inch. Not bad, not bad Another good check for distortions is to compare the distance between the yellow line and the middle of the body plan and the yellow line and the middle of the half breadth at the midship bend. In this case, it´s 791 vs. 790 pixels, so pretty much perfect. Pro tip: if you want to model a ship from the Architectura Navalis and use a plan from Chapman.net, this last check is absolutely necessary as those plans are heavily distorted along the x-axis. Different types of measurements Let´s have closer look at how perpendiculars can be defined (which in turn define the length of a ship). Here´s the draught of a danish ship, dated 1807. Perpendiculars Danish shipwrights at the time dropped the perpendiculars (green lines) at the intersection of the LWL (load waterline, blue) and the rabbet line at the stem and stern post (without planking thickness). This gives a length of 138' 6''. This method was also used by some shipwrights in France, by the way. British shipwrights dropped the perpendiculars at the intersection of the lower surface of the gun deck and rabbet line at the stem and stern post (without planking thickness). Unfortunately, the gun deck isn´t shown on the plan, so I used the upper deck for the perpendiculars (yellow line). This gives a length of the upper deck of 143'. French shipwrights......well, they used a lot of different methods to define the perpendiculars One of the most common was the intersection of the outside of the stern post with the projection of the upper face of the wing transom aft and the outside of the stem fore (brown line). Another method was using the intersection of the LWL and the outside of stem and stern post (purple line). This gives a length of 144' 3'' for the former and 141' 3'' for the latter. Breadth Danish and french shipwrights used outside of frame to outside of frame at the midship bent (red line), which is the same as the british breadth moulded, 36' 8'' in this case. The british breadth extreme adds the thickness of the second strake above or below the wales to the breadth moulded. The thickness of this strake isn´t given on the plan, but in an additional document (5,5 ''). So breadth extreme would be 36' 8'' + 2* 5,5'' = 37' 7''. Depth in hold Danish and french shipwrights defined the depth in hold as the distance (black line) between the upper surface of the keel - including rabbet line - and the lower surface of the deck beams of the closest armed deck (the upper deck, in this case). This ship has a depth in hold of 18' 2''. British depth in hold was distance (green line) between the upper surface of the keel - including rabbet line - and the lower surface of the deck beams of the closest continuous deck (the gun or lower deck in this case). Depth in hold measured this way is 12' 3''. Easy, isn´t it? To complicate things a bit, let´s convert the danish fod used so far into french pied de roi and british feet and apply the corresponding measurement methods. Danish Length 138' 6'' Breadth 36' 8'' Depth in Hold 18' 2'' French Length 139' 6'' Breadth 35' 4'' Depth in Hold 17' 7'' British Length 147' 5'' Breadth extreme 38' 9'' Depth in Hold 12' 7,5'' Links: http://www.marinewiki.org/index.php?title=Lines_plan http://modelshipworldforum.com/resources/plans_and_research/InterpretingLineDrawings.pdf
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