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Everything posted by Malachi

  1. This is the successor of my other tutorial, 'Reading a ship plan' and the second of four tutorials (basic hull modelling and basic texturing are next). I´ll take a ship I´ve already modeled as base for this tutorial, the frégate légère La Panthère (HMS Amazon in british service) of 1744. Part 1: Research The first thing you want to do if you found an interesting ship you want to model is to find as many background information on it as possible because it makes the actual modelling much easier. In my case, I found a plan of La Panthère in Boudriot´s 'History of the French Frigate'. It´s not the original french plan (which sadly doesn´t exist anymore according to CATALOGUE DES PLANS DE BÂTIMENTS À VOILES CONSERVÉS DANS LES ARCHIVES DE LA MARINE, probably destroyed by the disastrous fire in the Brest dockyards in 1746), but the plan the british made when they took off their lines after her capture in 1745: The original plan would have been better, as 'as taken off' plans sometimes contain errors. For example, the british plan for La Renommée shows more tumblehome than the original french plan, probably because the thickness of the whales wasn´t properly subtracted when the frames of the body plan were drawn. So, we got the plan from the NMM, now we look for other sources, the best sites are https://digitaltmuseum.se, http://www.maritiemdigitaal.nl/index.cfm?event=page.collections&collection=technischetekeningen and http://www.orlogsbasen.dk/base.htm / https://www.sa.dk/ao-soegesider/da/other/other-collection/40. I was pretty lucky as all three of them have a copy of the british plan of 1745, so I could check each plan for distortions/inaccuracies etc. As it turned out, the plan from the danish archives was the best: It has a few oddities, but more on that later. So, next stop: more research Sister ships, date of launch designer/constructor, dimensions (very important for scaling in a modelling app), service history etc. The best site for the first basic research on a ship is threedecks.org. It shows two entries, one for La Panthère and one for HMS Amazon. I have a danish copy without a scale of the british plan, so I checked the dimensions of Amazon to see if the numbers on the plan are correct: length p/p 115' 6'' breadth moulded 31' depth in hold 10' 2'' The numbers seem to be identical (I also checked the source for the dimensions, British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714 - 1792, just to be safe :P), so we can move on and have a look at the other information on threedecks. The next most important info is who built the ship so we can look for possible sister ships. In La Panthère´s case, that´s Jaques-Luc Coulomb, sous-constructeur under Blaise Ollivier at Brest at the time the plans for La Panthère were made. As it turns out, he also constructed the frigate La Siréne, launched in 1744 ( the plan for La Siréne can be found in af Chapman´s Architectura Navalis Mercatoria). Next I searched threedecks for other ships built at Brest at the time between 1740 and 1750 and which are roughly comparable in size. This brought up ten ships, the most important ones are La Renommée and L' Aramante because there two detailed monographs available about these ships which would be incredibly useful for stuff which isn´t shown on the plan like masts, interior, paint scheme, deck layout etc. And monographs also mean that there´s a high probability that there are models which can be used as further references. This is especially crucial in my case, as I haven´t found any contemporary depictions of La Panthère/Amazon (paintings, drawings, models) which would have been a very important guideline for the modelling process. My next research step, the (service) history of the ship, isn´t that interesting for this tutorial, so I´ll skip that. Part 2: Preparing the plans in an image editor Now comes the interesting (and most tedious) part. I´m using GIMP for this kind of work, but any decent image editor would do. First, we have to determine which lines have to be 'straight' (or better, parallel to the borders of the image), so we can rotate the image accordingly if they aren´t. The red lines (the center of the bodyplan, the center of the half breadth with the waterlines, the perpendiculars fore and aft and the station lines) should be straight on any plan. If they aren´t, you have to rotate the image (GIMP shortcut: shift + R). Only one of the green lines ( waterline and keel) can be perpendicular to the station lines (except if there´s no difference between the draught fore and aft, but those cases are exceptionally rare) Let´s have a closer look if the lines are straight of if we have to correct the image. First the body plan: The blue lines are a nice visual aid (called 'guide' in GIMP) which can be accessed by left-clicking (and holding) on the pixel-scale at the top and the left of the window. As you can see, the center line of the body plan is slightly off, so we have to correct that. To do so, we select the body plan (R), then we cut and paste the selection. In the the layer window, we right-click the 'floating selection' and select 'to new layer'. Now we've created an new layer that can be moved/scaled/rotated independently from the rest of the image. Pressing R will bring up the rotate window: Looks much better after rotating: The keel also is slightly off: We select the sheer (the side view of the ship) and repeat the procedure we did with the body plan: select, cut, paste, rotate. The same goes for the half breadth. Now that the lines that should be straight actually are straight, we have to bring the body plan on the same level as the sheer (shortcut: M to move a layer) I used the dotted line (which shows the inside of the planking) over the keel on the sheer to align the body plan with the sheer. Edit: Jeeeee, I almost forgot one of the most important parts: CHECK YOUR PLAN FOR DISTORTIONS! First, we'll have a look at the sheer and half breadth. Drop a guide an every station line, and measure the distance between them. It should be roughly same for every part between the two purple lines (expect for the two in the middle). My measurements vary between 223 pixels and 225, which is really good considering the plan is over 250 years old. The sheer seems to be okay. Next, the body plan: We measure the distance between the line in the center and the lines at the sides, logically they should be the same. Green line is 678 pixels, red one too. Excellent *insertMrBurnsgrin* Then we compare these measurements with the length of the extreme breadth of the half breadth: I got 677 pixel, which is very much okay This step is very crucial if you want to model a ship from the Architectura Navalis Mercatoria from chapman.net, as these plans are compressed along the longitudinal axis, so the red and green lines on the body plan are much shorter than the corresponding lines on the half breadth. Dividing the measurement of the half breadth by the measurement of the body plan gives you the ratio by which you have to adjust the width of the image. Part 3: Setting up the plans in an 3D modelling app (Blender) So, finally, the plan is ready, let´s get it in Blender: Set up guides to make selecting the various parts of the image easier and more exact (the select tool snaps to the borders of the guides). Corresponding colours should have the same length, the blue line should should be have as long as the red one. The red part for the body plan is 1500x1500, sheer 6000x1500 and half breadth 6000x750. Now it´s just a matter of selecting the various parts and pasting them as a new image. Only the half breadth requires additional steps. This is how it should look like: Go to the image tab and select canvas size. Double the height and move down the image in the preview picture. It should look like this: Then press ctrl+A, right click and select copy, right click again and select paste as..., then select new layer (not paste or paste into!). This the result: Almost there...now go to the layer tab, select transform ---> Flip vertically. Et voila: BLENDERTIME! Open up a new scene and select the cube, go to edit mode and select length in the mesh display/ length info. We have a length/width picture ratio of 4:1, so we have to adjust the length of the cube to 24'. Then we delete the top and the right side of the cube and invert the faces: Then we assign a material to each remaining side of the object. Select one face and press the corresponding view shortcut on the numpad to have a direct view on it: Press U and select Project from view (Bounds). Open up UV/Image Editor in another Window. Go to the texture tab, select New, then Image -> Open and select your image (the sheer plan is my case). This should be the result: Repeat this for the other views/images: Now it´s time to make some virtual sawdust
  2. Plan (from the Riksarkivet, Kopenhagen) Service history Designed by Blaise Pangalo (also known as maître Blaise) at Brest Keel laid down: 09. 1706 First Commissioned 10. 1707 21.10. 1707 Battle of the Lizard/Bataille d'Ouessant (I linked the english and the french wiki entries) Capture of the Ruby, 50 guns, and several merchant ships 1708 Cruise to the Azores, again as part of the escadre Duguay-Trouin, taking three prices 1711 Expedition to Rio de Janeiro 1712 Return to Brest 1728 Cruise to Tripoli, Bombardement of Tripoli 1741 hulked at Brest 1748 broken up Dimensions ( as demi - batterie, in pied de Roi) Length 118' Breadth 31'6'' Depth in hold 13'6'' Armarment Gundeck 6, later 8* 12 pounders Upper Deck 26* 8 pounders Forecastle and Quarterdeck 8* 4 pounders Dimensions (as frigate) Length 118'9'' Breadth 32' Depth in hold 13'8 1/2'' Armarment Upper Deck 26* 8 pounders Forecastle and Quarterdeck ? A couple of words about Blaise Pangalo, as he was quite an illustrious and mysterious figure: Originally from Venice, he went to France to work as a shipwright and was 'discovered' by Admiral de Tourville in the late 1670s. With this kind of patronage and his exceptional talents , he quickly rose through the ranks and finally became master shipwright at Brest, the most senior position in the hierachy of french naval engineers. While in french service, he designed and built at least 23 vessels, including five first rates. Pangalo´s ships were famed for stability, speed and weatherliness and his work had an huge impact on french ship design and provided a major influence for Blaise Ollivier, one of the most eminent figures in 18th century ship building ( and he built 'our' Renommée, by the way). Pangalo - most probably - died in 1714 in Brest, although it´s possible that he faked his own death in a rather creative effort to escape substantial financial troubles and contined working in Russia under Peter the Great until 1719. L'Amazone was one the first demi-batteries, 'designed specifically for commerce raiding' (Sailing Ships at War, Howard), with a fully armed upper deck and half a tier of guns on the gun deck. It´s not clear when the rebuilt took place, but given the service history of L'Amazone, I think it´s safe to assume that it happened either under the supervision of Joseph Ollivier, Blaise´s father, as master shipwright at Brest or in the early years of B. Ollivier´s tenure at the same post. In either case, she was one of the very first steps in the evolution of the 'true' frigate. Sources: Ships and Shipbuilders: Pioneers of Design and Construction, Walker, 2010 18th Century Shipbuilding: Remarks on the Navies of the English & the Dutch. Olliver, 1737, edited by Roberts, 1992 Snau and Fregat: Small Cruisers in the Danish Navy 1650 - 1750, Auer, 2008 Vaisseau de 64 cannons Le Fleuron, Boudriot/Delacroix, 1995 WIP pics As the plan leaves much to be desired, I have to do things a bit differently this time (read: oldschool) and build the ship from the ground up. The 'frames' aren´t the actual frames, just the station lines with the thickness of the planking already added, should serve as a nice visual aid to determine the final hull shape. The stuff not depicted on the plan (e.g. positions/dimensions of the masts, a proper deck plan) will come from contemporary treatises and tables. This is going to be fun
  3. No, sorry, never seen the deco concept for the VdP :/ 286 and 287 are body plan only (just the right side of the plan I posted) plan vertical is the body plan, plan d'élévation is the sheer, plan horizontal is the half breadth, so a plan like this would be described as 'Éch. Pl. vertical, d’élévation et horizontal.' in the Catalougue des plans de bâtiments à voiles.
  4. Malachi

    Old prototype sloop

    'Boat'? Geeeeee.....
  5. Malachi

    Flags Flags Flags

    Not quite on topic, but interesting nonetheless: https://archive.org/details/britishflagsthei00perruoft
  6. Making accurate interiors for ships is an absolute research nightmare, believe me And then there´s the tris count and textures to consider.
  7. Malachi

    What music while playing Naval Action

  8. Age of sail grognard, hardcore sim'er with casual time spending. I'm a complicated person. Cater to my needs
  9. Malachi

    French Frigate L'Hermione

    Bloody hell...awesome vids, thanks for the link, maturin!
  10. Malachi

    Rigging type benefits

    Ops, seems like I should have looked at my sources before I posted and not write stuff from memory. You´re correct, at the time of the expedition La Belle would have been a 'barque' (i.e. just fore-and-aft rigged on the mizzen, a topsail on this mast would have probably made her a frégate légère, just as G. Grieco described her in his article in the Journal of Nautical Archaeology). He, I'm german, nitpicking is part of my DNA Well, in the Med wind conditions and directions can change quite drastically over a short period of time, so people tried to adapt to get from point A to point B as fast and efficiently as possible. Some favoured lateens, some square, some a mix of both. If both points are in the Med, than lateen sails may be the better option, if one of the points is on an atlantic coast with it´s longer 'static' wind conditions, than a mix might be preferable. And if you look at the med section of Du Pas' book I linked above, you´ll find quite a few french fore-and-aft rigged vessel
  11. Malachi

    Rigging type benefits

    That´s not true for the first french naval luggers, those were direct copies of british vessels (though later versions were slightly larger). A barque longue usually had two masts, just like the early corvettes. La Belle may have been given a mizzen mast just for La Salle´s expedition (and was subsequently classed as a fluyt, IIRC). Barque longue and corvette from Du Pas' book:
  12. Malachi

    Pirate Party Tonight

    And if real...a german would have been running the show
  13. Malachi

    What music while playing Naval Action

  14. Malachi

    What music while playing Naval Action

    Yikes. RatM is strong meta. I´ll summon M&M (just one of them wouldn´t be enough)
  15. Malachi

    What music while playing Naval Action

    Not bad, springby, not bad. Have a bit of Clutch in return
  16. Malachi

    What music while playing Naval Action

  17. This is getting better and better...I'm pretty sure the people at Trump University were very proud of you, getting a master and all that
  18. This response gave me a good laugh, thanks for that First time I've been called a brit fanboy, too. Feels dirrrrrty ^^
  19. Well, @NorthernWolves tracked down a log entry of Connie with 15 knots (in the Med in the late 1820s, IIRC). Might be worth it to track down the armament and rig changes she had back then to qualify that somewhat. Rig materials and techniques evolved over time, so higher speeds were possible, even for 'older' vessels. For comparison, british 32-pounder frigates of the time made 16 to 17 knots.
  20. Malachi

    Suggestion: Gender equality in Naval Action

    Oh, Hethwill the Outdated, Lloyds would like to have a word with you: https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2002/04/08/pronoun-overboard
  21. Ok, let´s break this down. First you wrote: Then this: So, the RN razeé´d three 74s in 1813. They simply revived the concept of cutting down unsatisfactory/worn-out ships of the line, just like they had done in the decades before. E.g. Anson, Indy, Magnanime, all cut down in the mid-1790s. Just with 74s instead of 64s this time, simply because the RN had an ample, uncommissioned supply of this type of ship. And they build four frigates to the 'old' design of the Endymion and two slightly larger 24-pounder frigates, all of them of fir. But they also happily continued to order dozens of 18-pounder Lively-, Leda- and other class vessels. Not quite the 'completely re envisioning' and 'change of building doctrine' you wrote about, n'est-ce pas? Just had a look, highest quoted speed in the book for the Connie is 12.5 knots. Well, while I don´t know which 'alternative' data you were looking at, my suggestions is to get some books which weren´t written with a stars-and-stripes bias cranked to 11. Took note, smiled and carried on. Edit: Wait a sec...you´re the same guy who produced pearls of wisdom like these: Oh my.
  22. None of the nonsense you posted is in that book IIRC, read it a while ago. And I think I'd remember something as stupid as 'creating the razée' as response to the American 44s.
  23. Bullshit post of the month. Quite the feat, given the competition. Congratulations, Sir.
  24. Malachi

    Wonderful ship maker

    To be fair to the artist who made the Surprise, he certainly had different tris count limits three or four years ago. Makes a huge difference in visual quality.